|Entrance through the 16th century wall to the old part of Berwick.|
It's a fair size town, witnessed by the fact that the London-Edinburgh trains stop there regularly and that several bus routes criss-cross the town. Walking from the train station towards the center of town we saw the walls of the town built, but not quite finished, in the 16th century. In the couple of hundred years before 1482 the town had changed hands between the Scots and the English about every 15 years or so. Before all this back-and-forth trading of sovereignty it had been an important sea port, part of the cause of the struggle to control it. Its importance declined as the constant struggle for dominance betrayed the confidences of the shippers. The Elizabethans, determined to settle the borders once and for all, built a large wall inside the medieval walls based on fortress technology borrowed from the latest fortification designs developed in Italy. Even then Italy was on the cutting edge of design.
|The path cut right through this fairway. Fore!|
Instead of going directly through the hole in the wall, we turned left and walked parallel to the wall towards the North Sea. We soon came to a links golf course with a convenient asphalt path that led us to the sea. Most of the fairways we could see had fairways with undulations that on a couple of them were so severe they looked like roller coasters for elves. The sand traps were tiny around the greens.
|The North Sea. The wind blew sharply and the clouds began to clear away.|
We walked back towards the town by a different route, passing the east side of the town's wall. We came to the barracks and main guard. Unfortunately the barracks and the museum were closed that day. But Erika did get a photo of the coat of arms on the gate.
|Georgian-era buildings in Berwick.|
|The River Tweed. The bridge at the rear is the railroad bridge built in the 19th century. And yes, this Borders region along the river is where Tweed wool originated.|
We decided to eat a little before catching the bus for the island. We found a lovely little coffee and tea shop that seemed pretty popular. I ate a very tasty triple layer Lady Victoria sponge cake with my tea, feeling very hoity-toity. Never had one before so of course I had to try it. The three people next to us oohed and aahed
|The Town Hall sits stolidly across from the coffee shop, and these old stocks next to it serve as a dire warning to miscreants, especially youthful ones, who might be tempted to misbehave in too extreme a manner.|
|The wonderful thing about old churches are the great cemeteries attached to them.|
I love old cemeteries. I hope you don't think this gruesome.
Shortly after alighting the shuttle bus to the castle stopped by. We hopped on for a nominal fee and, after picking up people at the car park, went off to the castle. The shuttle driver, as part of his patter, told us that there is a school on the island for the six children living there. Lucky kids.
|View from the castle. The castle seems pretty comfortable. Nice place for a sheep ranch. Too bad it's not for sale.|
|It had turned into a stunningly beautiful day. Benedict on the ramparts.|
|People must have been shorter in the 16th century.|
|The dot on the horizon is Bamburgh Castle, once the capitol of the Kingdom of Northumbria and also where St. Aidan died in 651.|
|This structure on the beach was a massive kiln for burning lime. Coal for the fire was brought up from Newcastle by sea. The lime was used as fertilizer.|
|Relaxing in the Gertrude Jekyll Garden.|
|You may be able to tell that the castle is built in the shape if a ship's keel.|
|Statue of St. Aidan facing the Lindisfarne Priory.|
|Lindisfarne Castle in the background.|
|St. Aidan and Benedict. St. Aidan's feast day and Benedict's birthday are the same, 31 August. King Oswald of Northumbria invited the Irish monk Aidan to preach to and convert his pagan Saxon subjects to Christianity in 635. Aidan founded a monastery on Lindisfarne soon after his arrival from Iona. The monastery consisted of wooden buildings as in Ireland. He invited a dozen local boys from the mainland to attend school at the monastery, and they too eventually became missionaries. Because of his success as a missionary St. Aidan is known as the Apostle of England. He died on 31 August 651 at Bamburgh Castle a few miles north of Lindisfarne on the coast. The Lindisfarne Gospels, which I saw at the British Library the previous week, were created about 50 years later at the monastery. The Vikings made their first attack on England at Lindisfarne in 793, and because of their frequent forays on this coast the monks abandoned the island in the 9th century, and monastic life on the island lay dormant for a couple of centuries.|
|Benedict dressed as St. Aidan last year as part a school project.|
|The monastery was re-established in the early 12th century, which is when |
construction began on a Norman church and priory, the ruins which we still
have with us today.
|A drawing of one of the walls of the priory before it collapsed.|
|Celtic cross. Some preservation work was being done on the front of the church.|
|The Rainbow Arch|
|Lindisfarne Castle in the background.|
|Statue of St. Cuthbert, the most important abbot of the monastery after Aidan.|
|The priory was originally a large complex, although after a time only 3-4 monks lived there. When Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries, the priory's stones were used to build Lindisfarne Castle.|
|Celtic crosses in various forms are all over the island.|
Celtic Christianity differed from Roman Christianity.
|The recently built, and small, Catholic church on the island.|
|Ploughshare made from different kinds of weapons. In the Reformed Church yard next to St. Aidan's Catholic Church.|
|Getting on the last bus before the tide traps us on the island.|
The ruins of Berwick Castle are next to the railway station, but it was too dark see them. I saw them from the train when we passed through Berwick on the way back to London Monday afternoon.
|The Cross of St. George and the lion and red rose of England.|
|The Cross of St. Andrew and the unicorn and thistle of Scotland.|